January 31, 1865~ Congress passes 13th Amendment; submitted to states February 1st for ratification

A Visit from the Old Mistress by Winslow Homer

1876 / Oil on canvas / 18”x24” / Smithsonian American Art Museum, DC

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Previous January 31 posts:
Winter~ January 31
January 31 (music)~
Betty Parsons~ January 31, 1900-July 23, 1982
Jackie Robinson: January 31, 1919 – October 24, 1972
Artist Birthday Quiz for 1/31~

November 22, 1871~ Death of Oscar Dunn, first elected Black Lieut. Governor in USA

Louisiana Lieutenant Governor Oscar J. Dunn by Currier and Ives

c.1868-1871 / Lithograph / Image: 11 7/8”x8 7/16”
Various collections including Amistad Research Center, New Orleans, LA

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Previous November 22 posts:

November 22~ Artists at their Easels

Artist Birthday Quiz for 11/22~

September 15, 1963~ Church bombing kills 4 young girls in Birmingham, Alabama

Birmingham Totem by Charles W. White

1964 / Ink and charcoal on paper / 71 7/16”x40 1/16” / High Museum of Art, Atlanta, Georgia

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16th Street Baptist Church Bombing~ https://www.nps.gov/articles/16thstreetbaptist.htm

Previous September 15 posts:

Hispanic Artists~September 15

National Hispanic Heritage Month: Sept. 15 to Oct. 15

Artist Birthday Quiz for 9/15~

July 5, 1852~ Frederick Douglass gives “What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?” speech

Frederick Douglass by Sarah J. Eddy

1883 / Oil on canvas / 64”x49” / Frederick Douglass National Historic Site, National Park Service

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Solving the Mystery of the Missing Portrait~ https://mais.gmu.edu/articles/9823
Complete text of “What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?”~

Previous July 5 posts:

Summer~ July 5

Jean Cocteau: Born July 5, 1889

Artist Birthday Quiz for 7/5~

June 21, 1964~ Civil rights activists James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, & Michael Schwerner brutally murdered

Murder in Mississippi (Southern Justice) by Norman Rockwell

1965 / Oil on canvas / Intended as illustration for Look magazine issue of June 29, 1965;
a preparatory study was published instead / Norman Rockwell Museum, Stockbridge, MA

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Previous June 21 posts:

Pride Month~ June 21

Al Hirschfeld: Born June 21, 1903

Artist Birthday Quiz for 6/21~

May 8, 1958~ Eisenhower orders federalized National Guard removed from Little Rock

The Little Rock Nine  by  Platon, 2010

From left: Jefferson Thomas, Minnijean Brown-Trickey, Gloria Ray Karlmark, Elizabeth Eckford,
Carlotta Walls LaNier, Terrence Roberts, Thelma Mothershed Wair, Melba Patillo Beals and Ernest Green

Previous May 6 posts:

Love & War~ May 8

Bob Clampett: Born May 8, 1913

Artist Birthday Quiz for 5/8~

April 7, 1940~ Booker T. Washington is first African-American honored on U.S. postage stamp

10 cent Booker T. Washington stamp by USPS; part of Famous Americans series

1940 / Engraving, dark brown ink on paper; adhesive / National Postal Museum Collection, Smithsonian Institution, D.C.

Booker T. Washington by Harris & Ewing, Inc.

Digital image from glass negative of unknown date (between 1905 and 1915) / Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Division, D.C.

Previous April 7 posts:

Spring~ April 7

Billie Holiday: April 7, 1915-July 17, 1959

Billie Holiday: Born on April 7, 1915

Artist Birthday Quiz for 4/7~

Jackie Robinson: January 31, 1919 – October 24, 1972

robinsonLIFE With Jackie Robinson: Rare and Classic Photos of an American Icon

When Jack Roosevelt Robinson stepped onto Brooklyn’s Ebbets Field on April 15, 1947, he not only changed the face of professional baseball in America. In ways subtle and profound — ways that have been debated, dissected and celebrated in books, films, popular songs, academic circles and casual conversations in the long decades since — he changed the nation itself.

Here, LIFE.com offers a selection of both classic and, in some cases, rare pictures that paint a portrait of a man whose dignity, competitive fire and grace under pressure set him indelibly and inevitably apart from his peers and his rivals.


Ruby Bridges: Born September 8, 1954


Ruby Bridges Goes to School:

Ruby Bridges Biography:

“The Problem We All Live With” by Norman Rockwell
1964 / Oil on canvas / 36”x58” / Norman Rockwell Museum, Stockbridge, Massachusetts
The painting was originally published as a centerfold in the January 14, 1964 issue of Look magazine